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quarta-feira, 7 de dezembro de 2011

Normal Operations




Applicable to: ALL

The NORMAL OPERATIONS Chapter outlines the techniques that
should be applied for each flight phase,
in order to optimize the use of Airbus aircraft.

This chapter must be read in parallel with the FCOM,
which provides normal procedures, and
their associated tasksharing, callouts, and checklists.

All of these flying techniques are applicable to normal conditions.

Other techniques applicable to adverse weather conditions, Refer to SI-010 GENERAL.

There are flow patterns at the end of some flight phases to
indicate where the actions are to be performed.

All pilots must apply the flow patterns, to ensure that
the flight crew performs the actions necessary for a specific flight phase,
before completing an applicable checklist.


Applicable to: ALL

1 Airbus' NORMAL CHECKLIST takes into account ECAM information,
and includes only those items that can directly impact flight safety and efficiency,
if actions are not correctly performed.

These checklists are of a "non-action" type
(i.e. all actions should be completed from memory before the
flight crew performs the checklist).

The NORMAL CHECKLIST includes 9 flight phases.
AFTER TAKEOFF checklists

are divided in two sections:

The "Down to the Line" section, and
the "Below the Line" section.

This format is designed to help pilots to manage the workload.

For example, the "BEFORE START - Down to the Line"
checklist may be called out, as soon as the Load and Trim Sheet
is available and takeoff data is set.

On the other hand, the "BEFORE START - Below the Line"
checklist may be called out after obtaining start-up clearance.

The Pilot Flying (PF) requests the NORMAL CHECKLIST,
and the Pilot Non Flying (PNF) reads it.

The checklist actions are referred to as "challenge/response"-type actions.
The PF "responds" to the "challenge" only
after checking the current status of the aircraft.

If the configuration does not correspond to the checklist response,
the PF must take corrective action before "responding" to the "challenge".
The PF may request that this action is performed by the PNF depending on the situation.

If corrective action is not possible, then the PF must modify the response
to reflect the real situation (with a specific answer).

When necessary, the other pilot must crosscheck the validity of the response.

The challenger (PNF) waits for a response before proceeding with the checklist.

For the checklist items that are identified as "AS RQRD", the response
should correspond to the real condition or configuration of the system.

The PNF must announce "LANDING CHECKLIST COMPLETED", after reading and completing the



Some abnormal/emergency procedures require flight and cabin crews to use specific phraseology
when communicating with each other.

To ensure effective communication between the pilots and
cabin crews, the standard phraseology may be recalled at the preflight phase.


The term "cross-cockpit communication" refers to communication between the PF and the PNF.

This communication is vital for any flight crew.

Each time one flight crewmember adjusts or
changes information and/or equipment on the flight deck,
the other flight crewmember must be
notified, and an acknowledgement must be obtained.

Such adjustments and changes include:

• FMGS alterations
• Changes in speed or Mach
• Tuning navigation aids
• Flight path modifications
• System selections (e.g. anti-ice system).

When using cross-cockpit communication, standard phraseology is essential to ensure effective
flight crew communication.

This phraseology should be concise and exact, and is defined in the

The flight crew must use the headset:

• From the ENGINE START phase until the TOP OF CLIMB phase
• From The TOP OF DESCENT phase until the aircraft is parked.


When the aircraft is below 10 000 ft, any conversation that is not essential should be avoided:

This includes conversations that take place in the cockpit, or between the flight and cabin

It is important to adhere to this policy, in order to facilitate communication between
both of the flight crew, and to ensure the effective communication of emergency or safety-related
information, between flight and cabin crew members.






The Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) is published by the aircraft manufacturer.

It is a certified document that enables an aircraft to be dispatched,
with some equipment, or functions inoperative.

Some limitations, operational procedures and/or maintenance procedures may have
to be performed.

The Minimum Equipment List (MEL) is published by the operator, and approved
by local authorities.

It must be at least as restrictive as MMEL. The MMEL cannot be used to replace the MEL.

Aircraft can be dispatched with one, or more, secondary airframe part/parts missing.

In this case, the pilots must refer to the Configuration Deviation List (CDL), in the Aircraft Flight Manual.


To introduce an item in the MMEL, the manufacturer must demonstrate first that the consequences
of the system failure are no more than minor on the flight.

The manufacturer must demonstrate then, that the next critical failure,
i.e. the failure that has the most critical effect on aircraft operation
when added to the initial failure, maintains the level of safety.

In some cases, this level of safety is maintained provided (o) or (m) procedures are observed.

As an example, the aircraft dispatch with one pack inoperative induces a flight level limitation
whereas a pack failure in flight does not induce a flight level limitation.


All items/equipment listed in the MEL are identified using the Air Transport Association (ATA)
The ATA is the official reference for the classification of aircraft systems and/or functions.

The aircraft systems/functions are classified with six digits.

For example, 21-52-01 refers to:

21: ATA 21: Air conditioning
52: Air-cooling system
01: Air conditioning pack


The MEL has four parts:

• ECAM warnings/ MEL entry
• List of items that may be inoperative for dispatch
• Associated operational procedures
• Associated maintenance procedures


The MEL usually applies to revenue flights, and should be consulted before taxi out.

If a failure occurs during taxi out, and before the take off roll starts,
the decision to continue the flight is subject to pilot judgment and good airmanship.

The Captain may consult the MEL before deciding to continue the flight
(particularly if the failure has an effect on the takeoff performance).

During preliminary cockpit preparation, the pilots must press the RCL P/B, for at least 3 s, in
order to recall any previous cautions or warnings that have been cleared or cancelled.

The pilots should consult the technical logbook to confirm that the
indications are compatible with the MEL.

A failure may occur if a Circuit Breaker (C/B) disengages.

When on ground, do not re-engage any fuel pump C/Bs.

The flight crew may re-engage any other tripped C/Bs, provided that the action is
coordinated with the maintenance team, and the cause of the tripped C/B is identified.

The MEL section 0 is called ECAM Warnings/MEL Entry.

The purpose of this section is to help the pilots to determine the MEL entry point,
when an ECAM caution/warning message triggers.

The ECAM Warnings/MEL Entry section provides the relationship between the ECAM
caution/warnings, and MEL items, if applicable.

If a failed item does not appear in the MEL, it is not possible to dispatch the aircraft.

However, items that do not affect the airworthiness of the aircraft,
such as galley equipment, entertainment systems, or passenger convenience items,
do not appear in the MEL:

The dispatch applicability of these items is not relevant to the MEL.

In most cases, if the failed item appears in the MEL, the dispatch of the aircraft is authorized,
provided that all dispatch conditions are fulfilled:

• Check the rectification time interval has not expired
• Consider location and, where repair is possible
• (*) Means that an INOP placard is required
• (O) Means that a specific operational procedure or limitation is required
(all listed in the MEL OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES Chapter)
• (M) Means that a specific maintenance procedure is required.

When the MEL requires both maintenance and operational procedures, the maintenance
procedures must be performed before applying the operational procedures.

If some items are mandatory for ETOPS dispatch, a mention "ER" (Extended Range) is added
but mandatory items for CATII, CATIII operations, RNP and RVSM may be not mentioned in the

However, the MEL should include these requirements.

If it is not the case,

• Mandatory items for CATII/III are available in QRH
• Mandatory items for RVSM are available in FCOM (Refer to FCOM/PRO-SPO-50 REQUIRED


• Mandatory items for RNP are available in FCOM (Refer to FCOM/PRO-SPO-51 BRNAV IN


Dispatch with maintenance message displayed on ECAM STATUS page is allowed without specific
conditions except for:

• BLUE RSVR: Refer to MEL 29-00-01
• AIR BLEED: Refer to MEL 36-00-01.


Applicable to: MSN 0412-4552

Dispatch with maintenance message displayed on ECAM STATUS page is allowed without specific
conditions except for:

• AIR BLEED: Refer to MEL 36-00-01.



If the last checklist performed by the flight crew is SECURING THE AIRCRAFT C/L, the aircraft is in

After a SECURED STOP, the flight crew must perform all items in the Standard
Operations Procedure (SOP), for the next flight.

If the last checklist performed by the flight crew is PARKING C/L, the aircraft is in TRANSIT STOP.

After a TRANSIT STOP, items indicated by (*), are the only steps to be completed for



Safety exterior inspection is performed to ensure that the aircraft and its surroundings are safe for

Items that should be checked include:

• Chocks in place
• Doors status
• Ground crew present
• Aircraft environment



The objectives of the preliminary cockpit preparation are:

• To ensure that all safety checks are performed before applying electrical power:

‐ The RCL pb is pressed for at least 3 s to display the cautions and warnings from the previous
‐ The technical logbook and MEL are checked at this stage.

• To check the liquid levels i.e. oil, hydraulic and oxygen pressure using

‐ The HYD pb is pressed to check the hydraulic level
‐ The ENG pb is pressed to check engine oil level
‐ The DOOR pb is pressed, to check the oxygen pressure level

• To check the position of surface control levers e.g. slats/flaps, parking brake.

During the Preliminary Cockpit Preparation, the flight crew must also review all OEBs applicable to
the aircraft.

The flight crew must pay a particular attention to the red OEBs, and more particularly
to the red OEBs that must be applied before the ECAM procedure.


The ECAM S/D DOOR page displays the oxygen pressure.

When the oxygen pressure is below a defined threshold, an amber half box highlights the value.

This advises the pilots that the bottle should be refilled.

The flight crew should refer to the minimum flight crew oxygen pressure
The prolonged dispatch of the aircraft in such condition is not recommended.


Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) outline the various elements that the flight crew must review
in greater detail.

The objectives of the exterior inspection are:

• To obtain a global assessment of the aircraft status.
Any missing parts or panels will be checked against the Configuration Deviation List
(CDL) for possible dispatch and any potential operational consequences.
• To ensure that main aircraft surfaces are in adequate position relative to surface control levers.
• To check that there are no leaks e.g. engine drain mast, hydraulic lines.
• To check the status of the essential visible sensors i.e. AOA, pitot and static probes.
• To observe any possible abnormalities on the landing gear status:
‐ Wheels and tires status (cut, wear, cracks)
‐ Safety pins are removed
‐ Brakes status (Brake wear pin length with parking brake ON)
‐ Length of oleo. Any difference between the two main landing gears shall be reported.
• To observe any possible abnormality on the engines:
‐ Fan blades, turbine exhaust, engine cowl and pylon status
‐ Access door closed.



At the beginning of the pre-flight checks, the crew sets the ADIRS selectors to NAV, in order to
start alignment.

The alignment takes approximately 10 min, and must be completed before pushback (before any
aircraft movement).


ADIRS re-alignment is only necessary, if one of the ADIRS displays a residual ground speed
greater than 5 kt.

In this case, a rapid re-alignment should be performed on all 3 IRSs (by setting all the ADIRS
to OFF, then all back to ON within 5 s).

The fast alignment takes approximately one minute.

It involves setting the ground speed to 0, and updating the IRS position to the position of the
coordinates on the INITA page (usually airport reference coordinates).

A complete re-alignment is only recommended for Long-range flights, especially if flown outside
radio NAVAID coverage with Aircraft not equipped with GPS.


The F-PLN origin airport coordinates are extracted from the FMS database.

These coordinates appear on the MCDU INITA page, and are normally used for initialization.
They are the airport reference coordinates.

If a high navigation performance is desired, (i.e. for long-range flights without GPS and without
radio navigation updates, or if low RNP operation is expected), the crew should adjust the airport
reference coordinates to the gate coordinates, provided that this data is published or available
on board.

In this case, the flight crew should use the slew keys successively for Latitude and
Longitude, instead of inserting the coordinates on the scratchpad, (in order to avoid errors).

When performing the BEFORE START C/L, the flight crew will check that the IRS IN ALIGN
ECAM MEMO no longer appears, to indicate that the ADIRS are in NAV mode.

The crew will check on the POSITION MONITOR page, that the distance between IRS and FMS
position is lower than 5 nm.

This will permit to detect any gross error for IRS initialization, which is
not visible as long as GPS PRIMARY is available.

Checking runway and SID display on the ND in comparison with the aircraft symbol representing
the aircraft present position, (ARC or NAV mode, range 10 nm) during taxi, is a good way to check
the global consistency of FMGS entries (Position and flight plan).


When the ADIRS are in NAV mode, and new origin airport coordinates are inserted, the RESET
IRS TO NAV message triggers.

This occurs in transit, when the flight crew enters a new CO-RTE, or enters a new FROM-TO
airport pair on the INIT A page, and does not re-align the ADIRS.

In this case, check the coordinates on the INITA page and compare them with:

• The coordinates of the origin airport, that are provided on the Airport chart, in order to detect a
possible error in airport entry
• The ADIRS position (IRS monitor page).

In most cases the ADIRS position and the airport position do not differ significantly.

Therefore, the message may be cleared without realigning the IRSs.


Applicable to MSN 4316-4552

At the beginning of the pre-flight checks, the crew sets the ADIRS selectors to NAV, in order to
start alignment.
The alignment takes approximately 10 min, and must be completed before pushback (before any
aircraft movement).


ADIRS re-alignment is only necessary, if one of the ADIRS displays a residual ground speed
greater than 5 kt.

In this case, a rapid re-alignment should be performed on all 3 IRSs (by setting all the ADIRS
to OFF, then all back to ON within 5 s). The fast alignment takes approximately one minute.

It involves setting the ground speed to 0, and updating the IRS position to the position of the
coordinates on the INITA page (usually airport reference coordinates).


The ADIRS are automatically initialized at the GPS position.
These GPS coordinates are displayed on the MCDU INIT A page,
in replacement of the airport reference coordinates, after the pilot
entered the FROM-TO airport pair.

When performing the BEFORE START C/L, the crew will check that the IRS IN ALIGN ECAM
MEMO has disappeared, as a confirmation that the ADIRS are in NAV mode.

Checking runway and SID display on the ND in comparison with the aircraft symbol representing
the aircraft present position, (ARC or NAV mode, range 10 nm) during taxi, is a good way to check
the global consistency of FMGS entries (Position and flight plan).


When the ADIRS are in NAV mode, and new origin airport coordinates are inserted, the RESET
IRS TO NAV message triggers.

This occurs, in transit, when the crew performs a fast alignment, since this fast alignment is usually
completed before the crew enters the FROM-TO airport pair.

Check the validity of the IRS initialization, before clearing this message.




The scan pattern varies, depending on the pilot status, i.e PF, PNF, CM1, or CM2, and the areas
of responsibility:

1. Overhead panel
2. Center instrument panel
3. pedestal
4. FMGS preparation, and when both pilots are seated:
5. Glareshield
6. Lateral consoles and CM1/CM2 panels

Cockpit preparation flow pattern


FMGS programming involves inserting navigation data, then performance data. It is to be noted

• Boxed fields must be filled
• Blue fields inform the crew that entry is permitted
• Green fields are used for FMS generated data, and cannot be changed
• Magenta characters identify limits (altitude, speed or time), that FMS will attempt to meet
• Yellow characters indicate a temporary flight plan display
• Amber characters signify that the item being
displayed is important and requires immediate action
• Small font signifies that data is FMS computed
• Large font signifies manually entered data.

This sequence of entry is the most practical.

INIT B should not be filled immediately after INIT A,
because the FMGS would begin to compute F-PLN predictions.

These computations would slow down the entry procedure.

To obtain correct predictions, the fields of the various pages must be completed correctly, with
available planned data for the flight:

The database validity, NAVAIDs and waypoints (possibly stored in previous flight), and PERF
FACTOR must be checked on the STATUS page.

The INIT A page provides access to aircraft present position.
The flight crew will check that it corresponds to the real aircraft position.
The history wind is the vertical wind profile that has been encountered
during the previous descent and should be entered at this stage if it is representative
of the vertical wind profile for the next flight.

The F-PLN A page is to be completed thoroughly including:
‐ The take-off runway
‐ Altitude and speed constraints
‐ Correct transition to the cruise waypoint
‐ Intended step climb/descents, according to the Computerized Flight Plan (CFP).
If time permits, the wind profile along the flight plan
may be inserted using vertical revision through wind prompt.
The pilots should also check the overall route distance
(6th line of the F-PLN page), versus CFP distance.

The SEC F-PLN should be used to consider an alternate runway for take-off, a return to
departure airfield or a routing to a take-off alternate.

The RAD NAV page is checked, and any required NAVAID should be manually entered using
If a NAVAID is reported on NOTAM as unreliable, it must be deselected on the MCDU

The pilots:
‐ Inserts the expected ZFWCG/ZFW, and block fuel to initialize a F-PLN computation.
‐ Checks fuel figures consistent with flight preparation fuel figures.
The flight crew will update weight and CG on receipt of the load sheet.
After Engine start, the INIT B page is no longer available.
The flight crew should use the FUEL PRED page for weight and fuel data insertion, if required.

The thrust reduction altitude/acceleration altitude (THR RED /ACC)
are set to default at 1 500 ft, or at a value defined by airline policy.
The THR RED/ACC may be changed in the PERF TAKE-OFF page, if required.
The flight crew should consider the applicable noise abatement procedure.

The one-engine-out acceleration altitude must:
‐ Be at least 400 ft above airport altitude
‐ Ensure that the net flight path is 35 ft above obstacles
‐ Ensure that the maximum time for takeoff thrust is not exceeded.

Therefore, there are generally a minimum and a maximum one engine out acceleration altitude

The minimum value satisfies the first two criteria.

The maximum value satisfies the last one.

Any value between those two may be retained.

The one engine out acceleration altitude is usually defaulted to 1 500 ft AGL and will be updated
as required.

The flight crew uses the PERF CLB page to pre-select a speed.

For example, "Green Dot" speed for a sharp turn after take-off.

The crew may also check on the PROG page the CRZ FL, MAX REC FL and OPT FL.

Once the FMGS has been programmed, the PNF should then cross check the information prior to
the take-off briefing.

When the predictions are available, the crew may print the PREFLIGHT DATA.
This listing provides all the predictions which may be used during the initial part of the flight.


The PF should perform the takeoff briefing at the gate , when the flight crew workload permits,
Cockpit preparation has been completed and, before engine start.

The takeoff briefing should be relevant, concise and chronological.

When a main parameter is referred to by the PF, both flight crewmembers must crosscheck
that the parameter has been set or programmed correctly.

The takeoff briefing covers the following:

Take off briefing with associated checks

1- Miscellaneous
Aircraft type and model (Tail strike awareness)
Aircraft technical status (MEL and CDL considerations, relevant OEB)
RWY conditions
Use of ENG/Wing Anti Ice
ENG Start Procedure
Push Back
Expected Taxi Clearance
Use of Radar
Use of Packs for Takeoff

2- INIT B Page
Block Fuel (1) (FOB on EW/D)
Estimated TOW
Extra time at destination

3- Takeoff Perf Page

3- Takeoff Perf Page
V1, VR, V2 (1) (V1, V2 on PFD)
THR RED / ACC Altitude

4- Flight Plan
Minimum Safe Altitude
First assigned FL (1) (altitude target in blue on PFD)
Flight Plan description (1) (SID on MCDU FPLN page)

5- Abnormal Operations
For any failure before V1:
CAPT will call "STOP" or "GO"
In case of failure after V1:
continue TO, no actions before 400 ft AGL except gear up
reaching 400 ft AGL, ECAM actions
reaching EO ACC altitude
‐ If the engine is secured, level off, accelerate and clean up
‐ Otherwise continue climbing until the engine is secured
(but not above EO maximum acceleration altitude)
at green dot: OP CLB, MCT, resume ECAM, after TO C/L, status

ENG OUT routing: EOSID, SID, radar vector, immediate return ...

(1) Items that must be cross-checked on the associated display.


When the load and trim sheet is available, the crew will:
• Updates the ZFWCG/ZFW
• Checks TOW consistent with load sheet
• Checks updated fuel figures
• Modify the FLEX TEMP and the take-off speeds as required
• Enter the THS position in PERF TAKE OFF page
When the predictions are available, the crew will print the pre-flight data.




To achieve a correct seating position, the aircraft is fitted with an eye-position indicator on
the centre windscreen post.
The eye-position indicator has two balls on it.
When the balls are superimposed on each other, they indicate that
the pilot's eyes are in the correct position.

The flight crew should not sit too low, to avoid increasing the cockpit cut-off angle, therefore
reducing the visual segment.

During Low Visibility Procedures (LVP), it is important that the pilot's
eyes are positioned correctly, in order to maximize the visual segment, and consequently, increase
the possibility of achieving the appropriate visual reference for landing as early as possible.

After adjusting the seat, each pilot should adjust the outboard armrest, so that the forearm rests
comfortably on it, when holding the sidestick.

There should be no gaps between the pilot's forearm and the armrest.

The pilot's wrist should not be bent when holding the sidestick.

This ensures that the pilot can accomplish flight maneuvers
by moving the wrist instead of lifting the forearm from the armrest.

Symptoms of incorrect armrest adjustment include over-controlling, and not being able to make
small, precise inputs.

The rudder pedals must then be adjusted to ensure the pilot can achieve both full rudder pedal
displacement and full braking simultaneously on the same side.

The armrest and the rudder pedals have position indicators. These positions should be noted and
set accordingly for each flight.


When clear for start up and taxi, the PF will preferably display the MCDU PERF TAKE OFF page
whereas the PNF will display the MCDU F-PLN page.




Engines usually start using the Automatic Starting function.

The Full Authority Digital Engine Control(FADEC) systems
control this engine Automatic Starting function, and takes appropriate action,
if engine parameters are exceeded.

This function extends significantly the duration of engine life.

The thrust levers must be confirmed at "idle" before engine-start.

If the thrust levers are not at "idle", the thrust increases above idle
after engine-start, and can result in a hazardous situation.

However, an ENG START FAULT ECAM warning triggers, to indicate that
the pilots must set the thrust levers to "idle".

The engines are started in sequence, preferably engine 2 first,
in order to pressurize yellow hydraulic system,
which supplies the parking brake accumulator.

When the ENG START selector is set to "START", the FADECs are electrically-supplied.

When there is sufficient BLEED PRESS, the PF begins the start sequence by
setting the ENG MASTER switch to ON.

The pilots should monitor the start sequence:

‐ Start valve opens
‐ N2 increases
‐ IGN A(B)
‐ Fuel flow
‐ N1
‐ Oil pressure increases
‐ IGN indication off (Refer to FCOM/STLO-SOP-08 AUTOMATIC ENGINE START)
‐ Start valve closes

When the engine is at idle, or when AVAIL is displayed, the PF can start engine 1.

The pilot should check the relative engine vibration level.

When the ENG START selector is set to NORM, the packs return to the OPEN position.

APU Bleed should immediately be turned off, to avoid engine ingestion of exhaust gas.

If the start is not successful, the flight crew must use the ECAM as usually done,
and avoid instinctively selecting the ENG MASTER switch to OFF.

This would interrupt the FADEC protective actions (e. g. cranking after hot start).


Criteria: CFMI

As soon as the engine-start is complete, the pilots
should check the stabilized parameters.

At ISA sea level:
N1 about 19.5 %
N2 about 58.5 %
EGT about 390 °C
FF about 275 kg/h- 600 lb/h

Criteria: P6310
Applicable to: MSN 3001, 3030, 3062, 3214, 3216, 3371, 3390,
3438, 3469, 3509, 3585, 3602, 3606, 3635, 3642

As soon as the engine-start is complete, the pilots
should check the stabilized parameters.
At ISA sea level:
N1 about 23 %
N2 about 62 %
EGT about 435 °C
FF about 329 kg/h - 725 lb/h


Applicable to: ALL

Following an aborted engine start, the crew will consider
an engine dry cranking prior resuming a new engine start attempt.

Starter limitations in FCOM, Refer to FCOM/LIM-70 STARTER, must be



Applicable to: A318-121 PR-AVH, PR-AVJ, PR-AVK, PR-AVL, PR-AVO

‐ 3 consecutive cycles
‐ Pause between start attempts: 30 s
‐ Cooling period, following 3 start attempts: 30 min
‐ Maximum starter re-engagement speed: 20 % N2.
Note: Abnormally high tailwinds (> 10 kt ) or crosswinds (> 20 kt )
may have an adverse effect on starting.
It may be neccessary to reposition the airplane into the wind.


Applicable to: A319-115 PR-AVB, PR-AVC, PR-AVD, / A320-212 PR-AVP, PR-AVQ, PR-AVR

‐ 4 consecutive cycles: Each lasts a maximum of 2 min
‐ Pause between start attempts: 20 s
‐ Cooling period, after 4 start attempts: 15 min
‐ No running engagement of the starter, when N2 is above 20 %.



Applicable to: ALL

The pilots should only perform a manual start if:

• The EGT margins are low
• The residual EGT is high
• A dry crank is performed.

It may be appropriate to perform a manual start in high altitude operations,
or after an aborted engine start.

The MANUAL ENGINE START procedure is a "read and do" procedure.

Refer to FCOM/99 Duref Cible FCOM before starting a manual engine start.

The FADEC has limited control over the manual start process.

It ensures that the engine start valve closes at 50 % N2.

It monitors engine parameters, and generates an associated warning when necessary.

It is recommended that the flight crew use the stopwatch to ensure
that the starter engagement time remains within the limits.


Applicable to: ALL

An engine tailpipe fire may occur at engine-start, and may be the result of
either excess fuel in the combustion chamber, or an oil leak in the low-pressure turbine.

A tailpipe fire is an internal fire within the engine.
No critical areas are affected.

If the ground crew reports a tailpipe fire, the flight crew must perform the following actions:

• Shut down the engine (MASTER switch set to OFF)
• Do NOT press the ENG FIRE pushbutton
• Crank the engine, by using either the bleed of the opposite the engine, the APU bleed, or external
pneumatic power (Set ENG START selector to CRANK, then set the MAN START switch to ON).

Do NOT use the ENG FIRE pushbutton, this would stop power to the FADECs, and would stop
the motoring sequence.

The fire extinguisher must not be used, as it will not extinguish an internal
engine fire.

As a first priority, the engine must be ventilated.

If the ground crew reports a tailpipe fire, and bleed air is not readily available,
a ground fire-extinguisher should be used as last resort:

Chemical or dry chemical powder causes serious corrosive damage to the engine.


Applicable to: ALL

After engine-start, and in order to avoid thermal shock of the engine,
the engine should be operated at idle or near idle

before setting the thrust lever to high power.

The warm-up can include any taxi time at idle.


Applicable to: ALL

When the engines have started, the PF sets the ENG MODE selector
to NORM to permit normal pack operation.

At this time, the After Start Flow Pattern begins.


Applicable to: ALL

Before taxi, check that the amber "NWS DISC" ECAM message is off,
to ensure that steering is fully available.


Only a little power is needed above thrust idle, in order to get the aircraft moving (N1 40 %).

Excessive thrust application can result in exhaust-blast damage or Foreign Object Damage (FOD).

Thrust should normally be used symmetrically.


Pedals control nosewheel steering at low speed (± 6 ° with full pedal deflection).
Therefore, on straight taxiways and on shallow turns, the pilot can use the pedals
to steer the aircraft, keeping a hand on the tiller.

In sharper turns, the pilot must use the tiller.


The Nosewheel steering is "by-wire" with no mechanical connection between the tiller and the

The relationship between tiller deflection and nosewheel angle is not linear and the
tiller forces are light.

Therefore, the PF should move the tiller smoothly and maintain the tiller's position.
Any correction should be small and smooth, and maintained for enough time
to enable the pilot to assess the outcome.

Being over-active on the tiller will cause uncomfortable oscillations.

On straight taxiways, the aircraft is correctly aligned on the centerline,
when the centerline is lined-up between the PFD and ND.

Proper centerline following

If both pilots act on the tiller or pedals, their inputs are added
until the maximum value of the steering angle (programmed within the BSCU) is reached.

When the seating position is correct, the cut-off angle is 20 °,
and the visual ground geometry provides an obscured segment of 42 ft (12.5 m).

During taxi, a turn must be initiated before an obstacle approaches the obscured segment.

This provides both wing and tail clearance, with symmetric thrust and no differential braking.

Asymmetric thrust can be used to initiate a tight turn and
to keep the aircraft moving during the turn.

If nosewheel lateral skidding occurs while turning, reduce taxi speed or increase turn radius.

Avoid stopping the aircraft in a turn, because excessive thrust
will be required to start the aircraft moving again.

The pilot should be aware that the main gear on the inside of a turn will always cut the
corner and track inside of the nosewheel track.

For this reason, the oversteering technique may be considered especially
for A321 where main gear is 20 m behind the pilot.

Oversteering technique

When exiting a tight turn, the pilot should anticipate the steer out.

Additionally, the pilot should allow the aircraft to roll forward for
a short distance to minimize the stress on the main gears.

In the event that one or more tires is/are deflated on the main landing gear, the maximum
permitted steering angle will be limited by the aircraft speed.

Therefore, with one tire deflated, the aircraft speed is limited to 7 kt and
nosewheel steering can be used. With two tires deflated,
the aircraft speed is limited to 3 ktand nosewheel steering angle should be limited to 30 °.

For turns of 90 ° or more, the aircraft speed should be less than 10 kt.

180 ° TURN

For turn of 180°, the following procedure is recommended for making a turn in the most efficient
For the CM1

• Taxi on the right hand side of the runway and turn left to establish a 25 ° divergence from the
runway axis (using the ND or PFD) with a ground speed between 5 kt and 8 kt

• When CM1 assesses to be physically over the runway edge on A320/A321 or to be about 2 m
before the runway edge on A318/A319, smoothly initiate a full deflection turn to the right

• Asymmetric thrust will be used during the turn. Anticipation is required to ensure that
asymmetric thrust is established before the turn is commenced, between 30 % and 35 %
(or1.02 and 1.03 EPR), to maintain a continuous speed of approximately 5 to 8 kt
throughout the manoeuvre

• It is essential to keep minimum ground speed during the turn in order not to need to increase
the thrust too significantly so as not to get stuck.
It is a good practice that the CM2 calls the GS from ND while in turn

• Differential braking is allowed, but a braked pivot turn is not recommended as a general rule
(i.e. braking to fully stop the wheels on one main gear),
to avoid stress on the landing gear assembly

• On wet or contaminated runway, more specifically when turning on the runway white or
yellow painted marking, tight turn lead to jerky rides of the nose wheel which are noisy and

For the CM2, the procedure is symmetrical (taxi on the left hand side of the runway).

Aircraft dimensions


Applicable to: A318 121: MSN 3001 PR-AVH; 3014 PR-AVL; 3016 PR-AVO; 3030 PR-AVJ, 3062 PR-AVK,
A319 115: MSN 4222 PR-AVB; 4287 PR-AVC; 4336 PR-AVD.

When cleared to taxi, the PF should set the Parking Brake to "OFF".
When the aircraft starts to move, the PF should check the efficiency of
the normal braking system by gently pressing the brake pedals.


ONE A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET DSC-32-30-10 P 5/8

Braking is normal when :
‐ Green hydraulic pressure is available.
‐ The A/SKID & N/W STRG switch is ON.
During normal braking, antiskid operates and autobrake is available.
Braking is electrically-controlled through the BSCU :
‐ From the pilot’s pedals, or
‐ Automatically :
• On ground by the autobrake system,
• In flight when the landing gear lever is up.
The antiskid system is controlled by the BSCU via the normal servo valves.

There is no brake pressure indication in the cockpit.


Applicable to: ALL

Carbon brake wear depends on the number of brake applications and on brake temperature.
It does not depend on the applied pressure, or the duration of the braking.
The temperature at which maximum brake wear occurs depends on the brake manufacturer.
Therefore, the only way the pilot can minimize brake wear is
to reduce the number of brake applications.


Applicable to: A318 121: MSN 3001 PR-AVH; 3014 PR-AVL; 3016 PR-AVO; 3030 PR-AVJ, 3062 PR-AVK,
A319 115: MSN 4222 PR-AVB; 4287 PR-AVC; 4336 PR-AVD.

On long, straight taxiways, and with no ATC or other ground traffic constraints,
the PF should allow the aircraft to accelerate to 30 kt,
and should then use one smooth brake application to decelerate to 10 kt.
The PF should not "ride" the brakes.
The GS indication on the ND should be used to assess taxi speed.


Applicable to: A318 121: MSN 3001 PR-AVH; 3014 PR-AVL; 3016 PR-AVO; 3030 PR-AVJ, 3062 PR-AVK,
A319 115: MSN 4222 PR-AVB; 4287 PR-AVC; 4336 PR-AVD.

The FCOM limits brake temperature to 300 °C before takeoff is started.
This limit ensures that, in the case of hydraulic fluid leakage,
any hydraulic fluid, that may come intocontact with the brake units,
will not be ignited in the wheelwell.

This limit does not ensure that, in the case of a high energy rejected takeoff, the maximum brake
energy limitation will be respected.

Thermal oxidation increases at high temperatures.

Therefore, if the brakes absorb too much heat, carbon oxidation will increase.

This is the reason why the brakes should not be used repeatedly at
temperatures above 500 °C during normal operation.

In addition, after heavy braking, the use of
brake fans can increase oxidation of the brake surface hot spots,
if the brakes are not thermally equalized.


Applicable to: A318 121: MSN 3001 PR-AVH; 3014 PR-AVL; 3016 PR-AVO; 3030 PR-AVJ, 3062 PR-AVK,
A319 115: MSN 4222 PR-AVB; 4287 PR-AVC; 4336 PR-AVD.

If the ACCU PRESS drops below 1 500 PSI, the flight crew should be aware that the Parking Brake
can, quite suddenly, become less efficient.
This explains the amber range on the hydraulic pressure gauge of the ACCU PRESS.

If the pilots encounters any braking problems during taxi, they should set the A/SKID & N/W
They should not apply pressure to the pedals while setting the A/SKID & N/W STRG Sw to OFF.

Then, the PF should refer to the triple brake indicator and modulate the pressure
as necessary.


Brake fans cool the brakes, and the brake temperature sensor.

Therefore, when the brake fans are running, the indicated brake temperature
will be significantly lower than the indicated brake temperature when the brake fans are off.

Therefore, as soon as the brake fans are switched on, the indicated brake temperature decreases
almost instantaneously.

On the other hand, when the brake fans are switched off, it will take several
minutes for the indicated brake temperature to increase and match the real brake temperature.

When the fans are running, the difference between the indicated and the actual brake temperature
can range from 50 °C (when the actual brake temperature is 100 °C) to 150 °C (when the actual
brake temperature is 300 °C).

Therefore, before takeoff, if the fans are running, the flight crew should
refer to the indicated brake temperature. When the indicated brake temperature is above 150 °C,
takeoff must be delayed.

Brake fans should not be used during takeoff, in order to avoid Foreign Object Damage to fans and



Applicable to: ALL

At a convenient stage, before or during taxi, and before arming the autobrake, the PF silently applies
full longitudinal and lateral sidestick deflection.

On the F/CTL page, the PNF checks and calls out full travel of elevators and ailerons,
and correct deflection and retraction of spoilers.

As each full travel/neutral position is reached, the PNF calls out:
• "Full up, full down, neutral"
• "Full left, full right, neutral"

The PF silently checks that the PNF calls are in accordance with the sidestick order.

The PF then presses the PEDAL DISC pb on the nose wheel tiller and silently applies
full left and full right rudder and then returns the rudder to neutral.

The PNF follows on the rudder pedals and, when each full
travel/neutral position is reached, calls out:
• "Full left, full right, neutral"

Full control input must be held for sufficient time for full travel to be reached and indicated on F/CTL

The PNF then applies full longitudinal and lateral sidestick deflection, and on the F/CTL page, silently
checks full travel and correct sense of all elevators and ailerons, and correct deflection and retraction
of all spoilers.

If this check is carried out during taxiing, it is essential that the PF remains head-up throughout the


Applicable to: ALL

The TAKEOFF BRIEFING CONFIRMATION should only review any changes that may have
occurred since the full TAKEOFF BRIEFING done at the parking bay
(e.g. change of SID, change in runway conditions, etc.).

If ATC clears the aircraft to maintain a specific heading after takeoff,
turn the FCU HDG selector to disarm the NAV.

The current aircraft heading will be displayed on the FCU and the ND,
and the pilot can then set the cleared heading.

Once airborne, and above 30 ft, RA, RWY TRK engages.

To apply the clearance, the FCU HDG knob should be pulled.

Once cleared to resume the SID, a HDG adjustment may be necessary
to intercept the desired track for NAV capture.



Applicable to: A318 121: MSN 3001 PR-AVH; 3014 PR-AVL; 3016 PR-AVO; 3030 PR-AVJ, 3062 PR-AVK,
A319 115: MSN 4222 PR-AVB; 4287 PR-AVC; 4336 PR-AVD.

Brake life and fuel savings may govern company policy on permitting aircraft to taxi with one engine
shut down.

However, if taxiing out with one engine shutdown, the crew should be aware of the
• It is recommended to retain the use of engine 1 during taxi to maintain the green hydraulic system
for normal braking.
• Before releasing the parking brake, the yellow electrical pump will be set ON to pressurize the
yellow hydraulic circuit (ALT/PARK BRK and NWS) and avoid PTU operation. The pilot will check
the hydraulic yellow accumulator pressure.
• Slow or tight turns in the direction of the operating engine may not be possible at high gross
• It is not possible for ground personnel to protect the engine against fire, when the aircraft moves
away from the ramp.
• The remaining engines should be started with sufficient time for engine warm-up before takeoff.
• Any faults encountered during or after starting the remaining engine may require a return to the
gate for maintenance and thus generate a further departure delay.
• Taxi with one engine shut down may require higher thrust than usual. Caution must, therefore, be
exercised to avoid excessive jet-blast and the risk of Foreign Object Damage (FOD).
• The use of APU is recommended but the APU bleed should be switched off to avoid ingestion of
exhaust gases by the air conditioning system.
• Before ENG2 start,
‐ The yellow is set off to check correct operation of the PTU
‐ APU BLEED is set back to ON for ENG2 bleed start.




When the STROBE lights are set to AUTO, they come on automatically when the aircraft is
The ON position can be used to turn on the lights on ground for crossing, backtracking or
entering a runway.


If the takeoff has to be achieved without air bleed fed from the engines for performance reasons,
but air conditioning desired, the APU bleed may be used with packs ON, thus maintaining engine
performance level and passenger comfort.

In case of APU auto shut down during takeoff, the engine thrust is frozen till the thrust is manually reduced.
The packs revert to engine bleed which causes an increase of EGT to keep N1/EPR.

If the takeoff is performed with one pack unserviceable, the procedure states to set the failed
pack to OFF.

The takeoff may be performed with the other pack ON (if performances permit)
with TOGA or FLEX thrust, the pack being supplied by the onside bleed.

In this asymmetric bleed configuration, the N1 takeoff value is limited to the value
corresponding to the bleed ON configuration and takeoff performance must be computed accordingly.





The PF should announce "Take-off". The PF then applies power in as follows:
If cross wind is at or below 20 kt and there is no tail wind
• From idle to 1.05 EPR / 50 % N1 by reference to the TLA indicator on the EPR / N1 gauge.
• When the engine parameters have stabilized, to the FLX/MCT or TOGA detent as appropriate.

In case of tailwind or if cross wind is greater than 20 kt:
• From idle to 1.05 EPR / 50 % N1 by reference to the TLA indicator on the EPR / N1 gauge.
• Once stabilized, from 1.05 EPR / 50 % N1 to 1.15 EPR / 70 % N1 by reference to the TLA
indicator on the EPR / N1 gauge.
• Then, to FLX / TOGA, as required to reach take-off thrust by 40 kt groundspeed.

This procedure ensures that all engines will accelerate similarly.
If not properly applied, this may lead to asymmetrical thrust increase, and, consequently,
to severe directional control problem.

If the thrust levers are not set to the proper take-off detent, e.g. FLX instead of TOGA, a message
comes up on the ECAM.


Once the thrust is set, the PF announces the indications on the FMA.

The PNF must check that the thrust is set by 80 kt and must announce "Thrust Set".

The Captain must keep his hand on the thrust levers when the thrust levers are set to TOGA/FLX
notch and until V1.

On a normal takeoff, to counteract the pitch up moment during thrust application,
the PF should apply half forward (full forward in cross wind case)
sidestick at the start of the takeoff roll until reaching 80 kt.

At this point, the input should be gradually reduced to be zero by 100 kt.

The PF should use pedals to keep the aircraft straight.

The nosewheel steering authority decreases at a pre-determined rate as the groundspeed increases
(no more efficiency at 130 kt) and the rudder becomes more effective.

The use the tiller is not recommended during takeoff roll, because of its high
efficiency, which might lead to aircraft overreaction.

For crosswind takeoffs, routine use of into wind aileron is not necessary.

In strong crosswind conditions, small lateral stick input may be used to maintain wings level,
if deemed necessary due to into wind wing reaction, but avoid using large deflections,
resulting in excessive spoiler deployment which increase the aircraft tendency to turn
into the wind (due to high weight on wheels on the spoiler extended side),
reduces lift and increases drag.

Spoiler deflection becomes significant with more than a third sidestick deflection.

As the aircraft lifts off, any lateral stick input applied will result in a roll rate demand,
making aircraft lateral control more difficult.

Wings must be level.

In case of low visibility takeoff, visual cues are primary means to track the runway centerline.

The PFD yaw bar provides an assistance in case of expected fog patches if ILS available.


At take off, the typical all engine operating attitude after lift-off is about 15 °.


Rotation is conventional.

During the takeoff roll and the rotation, the pilot flying scans rapidly the
outside references and the PFD.

Until airborne, or at least until visual cues are lost, this scanning
depends on visibility conditions (the better the visibility,
the higher the priority given to outside references).

Once airborne, the PF must then controls the pitch attitude on the PFD using FD bars in
SRS mode which is then valid.

Initiate the rotation with a smooth positive backward sidestick input (typically 1/3 to 1/2 backstick).

Avoid aggressive and sharp inputs.

The initial rotation rate is about 3 °/s.

Avoid low rotation rates as this will have an impact on takeoff performance
by increasing the takeoff ground run.

Rotation rates between 2 °/s and 3 °/s will have a minimal impact on takeoff run
but rates significantly below 2 °/s should be avoided.

If the established pitch rate is not satisfactory, the pilot must make smooth corrections on the stick.

He must avoid rapid and large corrections, which cause sharp reaction in pitch from the aircraft.

If, to increase the rotation rate, a further and late aft sidestick input
is made around the time of lift-off, the possibility of tailstrike increases significantly on A321.

During rotation, the crew must not chase the FD pitch bar, since it does not give any pitch rate order,
and might lead to overreaction.

Once airborne only, the crew must refine the aircraft pitch attitude using the FD, which is then
representative of the SRS orders.

The fly-by-wire control laws change into flight normal law, with automatic pitch trim active.



A 318

Tail strike pitch attitude

- L/G compressed 15.7 °
- L/G extended 17.3 °

A 319

Tail strike pitch attitude

- L/G compressed 13.9 °
- L/G extended 15.5 °

A 320

Tail strike pitch attitude

- L/G compressed 11.7 °
- L/G extended 13.5 °




If tailstrike it is not a concern for the A318, the importance of this subject increases as fuselage
length increases.

Therefore, it is particularly important for A321 operators.

Tail strikes can cause extensive structural damage, which can jeopardize the flight and lead
to heavy maintenance action.

They most often occur in such adverse conditions as crosswind, turbulence, windshear, etc.



Early rotation occurs when rotation is initiated below the scheduled VR. The potential reasons
for this are:

• The calculated VR is incorrect for the aircraft weight or flap configuration.
• The PF commands rotation below VR due to gusts, windshear or an obstacle on the runway.

Whatever the cause of the early rotation, the result will be an increased pitch attitude at lift-off,
and consequently a reduced tail clearance.


The recommendation given in the ROTATION TECHNIQUE paragraph should be applied.

A fast rotation rate increases the risk of tailstrike, but a slow rate increases take-off distance.

The recommended rate is about 3 °/s, which reflects the average rates achieved during flight
test, and is also the reference rate for performance calculations.


When performance is limiting the takeoff weight, the flight crew uses TOGA thrust and selects
the configuration that provides the highest takeoff weight.

When the actual takeoff weight is lower than the permissible one, the pilot uses FLEX TO thrust.

For a given aircraft weight, a variety of flap configurations are possible.

Usually, the pilots selects the configuration that provides the maximum FLEX temperature.

This is done to prolong engine life.

The first degrees of flexible thrust have an impact on maintenance costs
about 5 times higher than the last one.

The configuration that provides the maximum FLEX temperature varies with the runway length.

On short runways, CONF 3 usually provides the highest FLEX temperature, and the tail
clearance at lift off does not depends on the configuration.

On medium or long runways, the second segment limitation becomes the limiting factor, and
CONF 2 or CONF 1+F becomes the optimum configuration, in term of FLEX temperature.

In these cases, the tail clearance at lift off depends on the configuration. The highest flap
configuration gives the highest tailstrike margin.


The main purpose of the pitch trim setting for take-off is to provide consistent rotation
characteristics. Take-off pitch trim is set manually via the pitch trim wheel.

The aircraft performs a safe takeoff, provided the pitch trim setting is within the green band on
the pitch trim wheel.

However, the pitch trim setting significantly affects the aircraft behaviour during rotation:
• With a forward CG and the pitch trim set to the nose-down limit the pilots will feel an aircraft
"heavy to rotate" and aircraft rotation will be very slow in response to the normal take off stick
• With an aft CG and the pitch trim set to the nose-up limit the pilots will most probably have to
counteract an early autorotation until VR is reached.

In either case the pilot may have to modify his normal control input in order to achieve the
desired rotation rate, but should be cautious not to overreact.


It is said in the TAKEOFF ROLL paragraph that care should be taken to avoid using large
deflection, resulting in excessive spoiler deployment.

A direct effect of the reduction in lift due to the extension of the spoilers on one wing
will be a reduction in tail clearance and an increased risk of tailstrike.


The correct extension of the main landing gear shock absorber (and thus the nominal increase
in tail clearance during the rotation) relies on the correct inflation of the oleos.


If a tailstrike occurs at take-off, flight at attitude requiring a pressurized cabin must be avoided and
a return to the originating airport should be performed for damage assessment.


The AP can be engaged 5 s after take-off and above 100 ft RA.


SRS engages when the thrust levers are set to the applicable detent for takeoff and will remain
engaged until the acceleration altitude.

The SRS pitch command is the minimum of the following pitches:
• Pitch required to fly V2 +10 in All Engine Operative case (AEO)
• Pitch required to fly IAS at the time of failure (with minimum of V2 and maximum of V2+15) in One

Engine Inoperative case (OEI)

• Maximum pitch attitude of 18 ° (22.5 ° in case of windshear)
• Pitch required to climb a 120 ft/min minimum vertical speed.

This explains why, during takeoff, the IAS which is actually flown in most cases is neither V2+10
(AEO) nor V2 (OEI).


Under most circumstances, the pilot can expect to follow the programmed SID.

In this case, NAV is armed on selecting the thrust levers to the applicable detent
for take-off and engages once above 30 ft RA.


At the thrust reduction altitude, "LVR CLB" flashes on the FMA.

When manual flying, lower slightly the nose, as applicable, to anticipate the pitch down FD order.
Bring the thrust levers back to CLB detent.

The A/THR is now active (A/THR on the FMA changes from blue to white).

The FD pitch down order depends upon the amount of thrust decrease between TOGA or FLX and

If takeoff was performed packs OFF, the packs will be selected back to ON after thrust reduction
because of the potential resulting EGT increase.
They will be preferably selected sequentially toimprove passenger's comfort.


At the acceleration altitude, the FD pitch mode changes from SRS to CLB or OP CLB mode.

The speed target jumps:

• Either to the managed target speed e.g. speed constraint, speed limit or ECON climb speed
• Or to the preselected climb speed (entered by the pilot on the MCDU PERF CLB pag before T.O.).

If green dot speed is higher than the managed target speed (e.g. speed constraint 220 kt) displayed
by the magenta triangle on the PFD speed scale, the AP/FD will guide the aircraft to green dot (as
per the general managed speed guidance rule).

If required by ATC, the crew will select the adequate target speed (below green dot) on the FCU.

During takeoff phase, F and S speeds are the minimum speeds for retracting the surfaces:

• At F speed, the aircraft accelerating (positive speed trend): retract to 1.
• At S speed, the aircraft accelerating (positive speed trend): retract to 0.

If the engine start selector had been selected to IGN START for take-off, the PNF should confirm
with the PF when it may be deselected.


If take-off is carried out at heavy weight, two protections may intervene:
• The Automatic Retraction System (ARS)
• The Alpha Lock function


While in CONF 1+F and IAS reaches 210 kt (VFE CONF1+F is 215 kt), the ARS is activated.

The ARS automatically retracts flaps to 0 °. The VFE displayed on the PFD change from VFE

As the aircraft accelerates above S speed, the flap lever can be selected to 0.

If IAS decreases below VFE CONF1+F, the flaps will not extend back to 1+F.